Secondary education: literae humaniores (certificate granting admission to higher education 1965)

University education:

Pass for first year of Candidature degree in Medicine (1 July 1966) at Facultés Notre-Dame de la Paix in Namur

Special certificate for Higher Education in Mathematics (1 July 1966)

Pass for second year of Candidature degree in Medicine (15 July 1967) at Facultés Notre-Dame de la Paix in Namur

Special certificate for Statistics

Pass for third year of Candidature degree (1 July 1968) at Facultés Notre-Dame de la Paix in Namur

First year of doctorate in medicine cum laude (8 July 1969) at Catholic University of Leuven (KUL)

Second year of doctorate in medicine cum laude (3 July 1970) at KUL Third year of doctorate in medicine cum laude (9 July 1971) at KUL Fourth year of doctorate in medicine cum laude (1 July 1972) at KUL

Training in neurosurgery

Training was divided up as follows, based on the accreditation criteria employed at the time:

First year: general surgery in Antwerp Hospitals under the supervision of Dr Ceulemans, general surgeon

Second year: general neurology, Dr Roussel and Dr De Haene’s group at St. Jan Ziekenhuis, a hospital in Bruges

Third year: neurosurgery, Professor Selosse’s group at Bunge Institute in Antwerp

Fourth and fifth years: Neurosurgery Department, Guy de Chaulliac site of Centre Hospitalier de Montpellier [Montpellier University Hospital] in Montpellier, France This traineeship in France was extended for another eight months as acting ‘Chef de Clinique’ [Senior Registrar] to acquire special competence in paediatric neurosurgery (Professor P. Frèrebeau).

Became officially qualified neurosurgeon in May 1977